The majority of the authentication systems found today can be broken or stolen and generally are characterized by reduced security. Therefore, numerous efforts have been made in developing effective methods in the areas of cryptography, data hiding and biometrics in order to achieve an enhanced level of information security. Biometrics or Biometric authentication uses subjects’ biological (DNA, ear, face, fingerprint, gait-body motion, hand geometry-vein pattern, iris-retina and odor) and behavioural data (keystroke dynamics, signature, smell and voice) in order to improve security and convenience. However, there are important technological challenges such as accuracy, reliability, data security, user acceptance, cost, and interoperability, as well as challenges associated with ensuring effective privacy protections. Although iris-retina scan and face thermogram gather most of the characteristics of an ideal biometric system the final biometric selection should be based on application’s purpose. Recently, novel approaches for the development of practical biometric identification systems have led to security enhancement of biometrics and cryptography. One of the most efficient methodologies towards security maximization of biometrics and cryptography seems to be the use of multimodality biometrics data since each biometric modality separately has its weaknesses. Other promising methods include cancellable biometrics via atrifacts which seems to overcome most of the risks and vulnerabilities related to security and privacy.